(Abraham plays a prominent role in Judaism, Islam , and Christianity.)
Biblically speaking, Abraham, who was born Abram, is placed around 2000 BCE. The story of Abram pretty much revolves around prosperity, land rights and posterity (more so inheritance). Pretty much an olden day play out of the hit Fox TV show Empire, only he has a whole lot more sons.
Abram’s father, Terah (descendant of Noah) decided to leave his homeland and move to the land of Canaan. He journeyed with his son Abram and Abram’s wife Sarai but they never made it to their destination, because old man Terah died en route. So, Abram and Sarai inhabited the land where his father died and was buried and there they prospered.
Sarai became unsettled because she was unable to conceive a child, so she voluntarily offered Hagar, one of her servant girls to her husband. He consorted with the slave girl Hagar and she had a son named Ishmael. Abraham was reportedly 68 years old when Ishmael was born. Ishmael’s bloodline will eventually establish Islam.
At some point, God called to Abram and made a covenant. According to scriptures, Abram was 99 years old at the time. God promised Abram the land of Canaan and to make his descendants through Sarai a great nation (Israel, as we know it today). This is the land that Moses will eventually lead his people to. To seal the deal, Abram had to circumcise himself and every man in his camp. And so he did. God then changed his name from Abram to Abraham, meaning, a father of many nations and changed his wife Sarai’s name to Sarah. Sarah in her old age, eventually gave birth to Issac, the continued father of this promised nation.
This interestingly sets up two separate nations and religions from one father. Ishmael vs. Issac = Islam vs. Judaism = Muslim vs. Jews.
This covenant between God and Abraham has proven to be a big deal over time. It has spawned the Abrahamic religions, and Judaism, Islam, and Christianity all fall under this umbrella.
Judaism encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people, which all stems from the Biblical Covenant between God and the Patriarch Abraham and all the additional aspects of the Covenant later revealed by their greatest prophet, Moses.